In this episode, we explore the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Qumran community and ask the question whether or not this group can be identified as the Essenes.
Klawans, Jonathan (2016). “The Essene Hypothesis: Insights from Religion 101”. Brill.
Magness, Jodi (2021). “The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls”. Second Edition. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Vermes, Geza (Trans.) (2004). “The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English”. Revised Edition. Penguin Books.
Gnosticism, then and now, in my judgment rises as a protest against apocalyptic faith, even when it rises within such a faith, as it did successively within Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Prophetic religion becomes apocalyptic when prophecy fails, and apocalyptic religion becomes Gnosticism when apocalypse fails, as fortunately it always has and, as we must hope, will fail again.Harold Bloom
It was probably Jacob Taubes, the Jewish philosopher of religion, who, following Scholem’s suggestions, provided the most intimate view into the regularity with which heretical extremism escalates, be it ancient or modern: when propheticism fails, apocalypticism emerges; if apocalypticism fails too, then Gnosticism emerges.Peter Sloterdijk